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The story of Graphene
Noun: the occurrence and development of events by chance in a happy or beneficial way. (Concise Oxford Dictionary)
INTERESTING AND AMAZING
Graphite had been a known quantity for a long time. Its atomic structure is well documented, and for a long time scientists pondered whether single layers of graphite could be isolated. The first isolated sample of graphene was discovered in 2004 by Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov at the University of Manchester. When using tape to polish a large block of graphite, the researchers noticed exceptionally thin flakes on the tape. Continuing to peel layer and layer from the flakes of graphite, they eventually produced a sample as thin as possible. They had found graphene. The discovery was so bizarre, the scientific world was sceptical at first. The popular journal Nature even rejected their paper on the experiment twice. Eventually, their research was published, and in 2010 Geim and Novoselov were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery. Graphene is the first two-dimensional material ever discovered - the width of one atom.  It is a sheet of carbon atoms that is super flexible and harder than diamonds. Graphene has been made into a superconductor in its natural state - which means electrical current can flow through it with zero resistance at room temperature, by means of inserting calcium atoms into it’s lattice structure. The implications of this are mind boggling. One of the potential uses of graphene is in converting solar energy, with a projected 60 percent efficiency compared to the roughly 25 percent efficiency that current cells are capable of. One of the amazing properties of graphene is that it is impermeable for nearly all gasses and liquids. Curiously, water molecules are an exception. It could therefore also be immensely helpful in purifying water of toxins. Oxidised graphene could even pull in radioactive materials such as uranium and plutonium present in water, leaving the water free of contaminants. Lockheed Martin recently developed a graphene filter called “Perforene” which the company claims will revolutionise the desalination process. These filters could reduce the energy requirements of reverse osmosis water filters by a hundredfold. We may finally have a way of mass producing Graphene. Revolutions don’t happen overnight. Silicon (created from river sand) was discovered in the mid 19th century, but it took nearly a century before silicon semiconductors paved the way for the rise of computers. Graphene, with it’s almost magical qualities, will be the resource that drives the next era of human history. There are many YouTube videos on Graphene, here is one of them. 16 year old invents new math theory - doesn’t even earn an “A” [fromthegrapevine.com/innovation] Tamar Barabi has invented a new geometric theorem quite by accident. She turned in her math homework and the teacher said the theory she used to solve the problem didn’t actually exist. “He said if I could prove it, it could be my theory. So that’s what happened”, Barabi told From The Grapevine. With help from her dad, who is also a maths teacher, they sent the theorem to experts around the world. Known as the Three Radii Theorem, or “Tamar’s Theory” for short, it goes as follows: “If three or more equal lines leave a single point and reach the boundary of a circle, the point is the centre of the circle and the lines are its radii." Believe it or not, that's the simple explanation. To compose the actual theorem, Barabi had to write up three proofs, a series of conclusions and some sample exercises.
Move over, Graphene? Researchers from Rice University have already begun exploring a one-dimensional nanomaterial that can match graphene. The researchers simulated a stretched out, 1D boron chain. The team also believe that this 1D boron could have properties weirder than graphene’s. Their research, based purely on detailed computer simulations of 1D boron, was published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society. While 1D boron chains are yet to be made, the simulations suggested that they have some incredible properties. Current synthesized forms of boron are limited to atom-thick and fullerene variants, as well as single-atom-thick- carbon chains known as carbyne. Researchers think that it would only be a matter of time before 1D boron atom chains are synthesized. (Copy & paste from Futurism.com) The Game Changer One dimensional boron chain simulations described above are not be the result of an accidental discovery, they are the result of curious scientific minds at work. Science holds the key to our future. The work done by Tesla and others on electric cars is motivated by the need to replace fossil fuels in motor vehicles. There are big disadvantages to heavy duty batteries, they are very expensive and take far longer to charge than what it takes to fill up with petrol or diesel fuel. Purdue researchers are working on a technology which will make vehicle batteries ‘instantly rechargeable’ which could change the future of electric and hybrid vehicles. It is called the IFBattery.  Watch the YouTube clip.
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The net is yours to conquer
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Noun: the occurrence and development of events by chance in a happy or beneficial way. (Concise Oxford Dictionary)
Interesting and Amazing “Eureka” Moments 
The story of Graphene
Graphite had been a known quantity for a long time. Its atomic structure is well documented, and for a long time scientists pondered whether single layers of graphite could be isolated. The first isolated sample of graphene was discovered in 2004 by Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov at the University of Manchester. When using tape to polish a large block of graphite, the researchers noticed exceptionally thin flakes on the tape. Continuing to peel layer and layer from the flakes of graphite, they eventually produced a sample as thin as possible. They had found graphene. The discovery was so bizarre, the scientific world was sceptical at first. The popular journal Nature even rejected their paper on the experiment twice. Eventually, their research was published, and in 2010 Geim and Novoselov were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery. Graphene is the first two-dimensional material ever discovered - the width of one atom.  It is a sheet of carbon atoms that is super flexible and harder than diamonds.
Graphene has been made into a superconductor in its natural state - which means electrical current can flow through it with zero resistance at room temperature, by means of inserting calcium atoms into it’s lattice structure. The implications of this are mind boggling. One of the potential uses of graphene is in converting solar energy, with a projected 60 percent efficiency compared to the roughly 25 percent efficiency that current cells are capable of. One of the amazing properties of graphene is that it is impermeable for nearly all gasses and liquids. Curiously, water molecules are an exception. It could therefore also be immensely helpful in purifying water of toxins. Oxidised graphene could even pull in radioactive materials such as uranium and plutonium present in water, leaving the water free of contaminants. Lockheed Martin recently developed a graphene filter called “Perforene” which the company claims will revolutionise the desalination process. These filters could reduce the energy requirements of reverse osmosis water filters by a hundredfold. We may finally have a way of mass producing Graphene. Revolutions don’t happen overnight. Silicon was discovered in the mid 19th century, but it took nearly a century before silicon semiconductors paved the way for the rise of computers. Will graphene, with it’s almost magical qualities, be the resource that drives the next era of human history? 16 year old invents new math theory - doesn’t even earn an “A” [fromthegrapevine.com/innovation] Tamar Barabi has invented a new geometric theorem quite by accident. She turned in her math homework and the teacher said the theory she used to solve the problem didn’t actually exist. “He said if I could prove it, it could be my theory. So that’s what happened”, Barabi told From The Grapevine. With help from her dad, who is also a maths teacher, they sent the theorem to experts around the world. Known as the Three Radii Theorem, or “Tamar’s Theory” for short, it goes as follows: “If three or more equal lines leave a single point and reach the boundary of a circle, the point is the centre of the circle and the lines are its radii." Believe it or not, that's the simple explanation. To compose the actual theorem, Barabi had to write up three proofs, a series of conclusions and some sample exercises.
Move over, Graphene? Researchers from Rice University have already begun exploring a one-dimensional nanomaterial that can match graphene. The researchers simulated a stretched out, 1D boron chain. The team also believe that this 1D boron could have properties weirder than graphene’s. Their research, based purely on detailed computer simulations of 1D boron, was published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society. While 1D boron chains are yet to be made, the simulations suggested that they have some incredible properties. Current synthesized forms of boron are limited to atom-thick and fullerene variants, as well as single-atom-thick-carbon chains known as carbyne. Researchers think that it would only be a matter of time before 1D boron atom chains are synthesized. (Copy & paste from Futurism.com) The Game Changer One dimensional boron chain simulations described above are not be the result of an accidental discovery, they are the result of curious scientific minds at work. Science holds the key to our future. The work done by Tesla and others on electric cars is motivated by the need to replace fossil fuels in motor vehicles. There are big disadvantages to heavy duty batteries, they are very expensive and take far longer to charge than what it takes to fill up with petrol or diesel fuel. Purdue researchers are working on a technology which will make vehicle batteries ‘instantly rechargeable’ which could change the future of electric and hybrid vehicles. It is called the IFBattery.  Watch the YouTube clip.